A Roller (also called compactor, or Road Roller) is a heavy vehicle machine used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations. Similar rollers are used also at landfills or in agriculture. In some parts of the world, road rollers are still known colloquially as steam rollers. Japan is a big manufacturer of heavy vehicles such as wheel loader, generator, forklift and bulldozer, etc.
History: The first road rollers were horse-drawn and were probably just borrowed farm implement in the 19th century, the first such vehicles were steam rollers, and rollers progressively replaced their steam-powered counterparts. The first internal-combustion powered road rollers were very parallel to the steam rollers they changed. Rollers are also used in landfill compaction. Such compactors normally have pad foot or "sheep's foot" drums and do not achieve a smooth surface. The pads aid in pressing, due to the smaller area contacting the ground.
Configuration: The roller can be a simple drum with a handle that is operated by one person and weighs 100 pounds, or as large as a ride-on road roller weighing 22 short tonnes (44,000 lb or 20 tonnes) and. A landfill unit may weigh 59 short tonnes (54 tonnes).
Variations: The air tyre roller the body may be ballasted with water or sand, or for extra condensation wet sand is used. Modern tyre rollers may be filled with steel ballast, which gives a more even balance for better compaction. Extra compaction may be achieved by vibrating the roller drums, allowing a small, light machine to perform as well as a much heavier one.
Features: Vibration is typically produced by a free-spinning hydrostatic motor inside the drum to whose shaft an eccentric weight has been attached. Human-propelled rollers may only have a single roller drum. Self-propelled rollers may have two drums, mounted one in front of the other (format known as "duplex"), or three rolls, or just one, with the back rollers changed with treaded pneumatic tyres for increased traction.
Wheels: Steamrollers, on the other hand, had smooth rear wheels and a roller at the front. The roller created with a pair of adjacent wide cylinders supported at both ends. This changed the separate wheels and axle of a traction engine.
Smokebox: The front roller is mounted centrally, forward of the single and the smoke box is comprehensive forward virtually at the top to include a support plate on which to mount the carry for the roller assembly. This gives the notable, hooded look to the front of a steam roller.
Special Equipment: The steam rollers were built with a scarifier mounted on the tender box at the rear. They could be swung down to road level and used to rip up the old surface before a road was remade.
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